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什么是碳配额?
返回列表 来源: 碳智库 发布日期: 2021.10.08 浏览次数:

什么是“碳配额”?所谓“碳排放权”,是指企业依法取得向大气排放温室气体(二氧化碳等)的权利。而“碳配额”则是指经政府主管部门核定,企业所获得的,一定时期内向大气中排放的温室气体(以二氧化碳当量计)的总量。
2.配额的分配模式:配额分配一般有三种模式:拍卖、免费分配、混合模式。拍卖:政府通过拍卖的形式让企业有偿地获得配额,政府不需要事前决定每一家企业应该获得的配额量,拍卖的价格和各个企业的配额分配过程由市场自发形成。免费分配:政府将碳排放总量通过一定的计算方法免费分配给企业。混合模式:从国际经验来看,大部分碳交易体系都没有采取纯粹的拍卖或纯粹的免费分配,而是采用配额分配到第三种模式即“混合模式”。混合模式既可以随时间逐步提高拍卖的比例,即“渐进混合模式”,也可以针对不同行业采用不同的分配方法。3.配额免费分配方法免费配额分配方式中,最具代表性的是历史总量法、历史强度法、基准线法。历史总量法:历史总量法以企业过去的碳排放数据为依据进行分配。通常选取企业过去3~5年的二氧化碳排放量得出该企业的年均历史排放量,而这一数字就是企业下一年度可得的排放配额。历史总量法对数据要求较低,方法简单,但忽视了企业在碳交易体系之前已采取的减排行为,同时企业还有可能在市场机制的影响下采取进一步减排行为。
     历史强度法:以企业历史碳排放为基础,并通过在其后乘以多项调整因子将多种因素考虑在内的一种计算方法,如前期减排奖励、减排潜力、对清洁技术的鼓励、行业增长趋势等。历史强度法是要求企业年度碳排放强度比自身的历史碳排放强度有所降低。
     基准线法:将不同企业(设施)同种产品的单位产品碳排放量按顺序从小到大排列,选择其中前10%作为基准线(10%为假设比例,不代表具体行业),每个企业(设施)获得的配额量等于其产量乘以基准线值。对于数据基础好、产品单一、可比性较强的行业可采用基于基准线法分配,如发电行业、电解铝等。
What is a carbon quota?
The so-called "carbon emission right" refers to the right of enterprises to legally emit greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, etc.) into the atmosphere. The "carbon quota" refers to the total amount of greenhouse gases (in terms of carbon dioxide equivalent) discharged into the atmosphere for a certain period of time by enterprises approved by the competent government departments.

2. Allocation mode of quota: There are generally three modes of quota allocation: auction, free allocation and mixed mode.Auction: the government allows enterprises to obtain quotas in the form of auction with compensation. The government does not need to decide the quota amount that each enterprise should obtain in advance. The auction price and the quota allocation process of each enterprise are spontaneously formed by the market. Free distribution: the government allocates the total amount of carbon emissions to enterprises for free through a certain calculation method.Mixed mode: From international experience, most carbon trading systems do not adopt pure auction or pure free distribution, but adopt quota allocation to the third mode, namely "mixed mode". The mixed model can either gradually increase the proportion of auctions over time, known as a "progressive mixed model", or it can use different allocation methods for different industries. 3. Free quota allocation method Among the free quota allocation methods, the most representative ones are historical total amount method, historical intensity method and base line method. Historical aggregate method: The historical aggregate method allocates data based on past carbon emissions of enterprises. Usually, the annual average historical emissions of the enterprise are obtained by selecting the carbon dioxide emissions of the enterprise in the past 3-5 years, and this figure is the emission quota of the enterprise in the next year. The historical aggregate method has low data requirements and simple methods, but it ignores the emission reduction behaviors that enterprises have taken before the carbon trading system, and enterprises may take further emission reduction behaviors under the influence of the market mechanism.

Historical intensity method: A calculation method that takes into account a variety of factors, such as early emission reduction incentives, emission reduction potential, incentives for clean technologies, industry growth trends, etc., based on an enterprises historical carbon emissions and then multiplied by a number of adjustment factors. The historical intensity method requires that the annual carbon emission intensity of an enterprise is lower than its own historical carbon emission intensity.

Baseline method

What is a carbon quota?The so-called "carbon emission right" refers to the right of enterprises to legally emit greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, etc.) into the atmosphere. The "carbon quota" refers to the total amount of greenhouse gases (in terms of carbon dioxide equivalent) discharged into the atmosphere for a certain period of time by enterprises approved by the competent government departments.

2. Allocation mode of quota: There are generally three modes of quota allocation: auction, free allocation and mixed mode.Auction: the government allows enterprises to obtain quotas in the form of auction with compensation. The government does not need to decide the quota amount that each enterprise should obtain in advance. The auction price and the quota allocation process of each enterprise are spontaneously formed by the market. Free distribution: the government allocates the total amount of carbon emissions to enterprises for free through a certain calculation method.Mixed mode: From international experience, most carbon trading systems do not adopt pure auction or pure free distribution, but adopt quota allocation to the third mode, namely "mixed mode". The mixed model can either gradually increase the proportion of auctions over time, known as a "progressive mixed model", or it can use different allocation methods for different industries. 3. Free quota allocation method Among the free quota allocation methods, the most representative ones are historical total amount method, historical intensity method and base line method. Historical aggregate method: The historical aggregate method allocates data based on past carbon emissions of enterprises. Usually, the annual average historical emissions of the enterprise are obtained by selecting the carbon dioxide emissions of the enterprise in the past 3-5 years, and this figure is the emission quota of the enterprise in the next year. The historical aggregate method has low data requirements and simple methods, but it ignores the emission reduction behaviors that enterprises have taken before the carbon trading system, and enterprises may take further emission reduction behaviors under the influence of the market mechanism.

Historical intensity method: A calculation method that takes into account a variety of factors, such as early emission reduction incentives, emission reduction potential, incentives for clean technologies, industry growth trends, etc., based on an enterprises historical carbon emissions and then multiplied by a number of adjustment factors. The historical intensity method requires that the annual carbon emission intensity of an enterprise is lower than its own historical carbon emission intensity.

Base line method: the carbon emission per unit product of the same product of different enterprises (facilities) is ranked from the smallest to the largest, and the top 10% is selected as the base line (10% is the assumed proportion and does not represent the specific industry). The quota amount obtained by each enterprise (facility) is equal to its output multiplied by the base line value. For industries with good data basis, single product and strong comparability, base-line allocation can be adopted, such as power generation industry and electrolytic aluminum. : The carbon emission per unit product of the same product of different enterprises (facilities) is ranked in descending order, and the top 10% is selected as the base line (10% is the assumed proportion, not representing the specific industry). The quota amount obtained by each enterprise (facility) is equal to its output multiplied by the base line value. For industries with good data basis, single product and strong comparability, base-line allocation can be adopted, such as power generation industry and electrolytic aluminum.


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